Imagine how cool it would be if you could use your Android applicaition fingerprint scanner for your biometric projects? You could take it anywhere you want and do remote biometric enrollment and identification in the field.
Let's be bold and imagine what a great solution it would be if all my Android phones could be used to use as a carrier for biometric projects to be, not only would it be cost saving, but it would be compatible to a large extent. The small size of Android devices enables us to take to all parts of the world and participate in different biometric programs. So what are the items of fingerprint scanner for Android, let's take a look at them together
What is a fingerprint scanner
Once used only for biometric recording systems and time and attendance systems, fingerprint scanners have become part of regular smartphones and more. Fingerprints have become a trusted method of personal identification. Fingerprint recognition technology combined with facial recognition technology or other biometric systems (such as retinal scanning technology) provides an impeccable way to identify anyone. With the explosion of mobile applications and wearable devices, the use of fingerprint scanning has shifted from "identification" to "authentication". Soon, it may no longer be limited to unlocking your phone and their apps. Many IoT applications, such as smart home automation, ilot and digital security applications, already use fingerprint scanners wherever user authentication, certification or identification is required.
Fingerprints are the only markers
The pattern of tiny elevations and depressions on the skin of a finger is called a fingerprint. Surprisingly, the human fingerprint is a unique marker. Perhaps, as humans evolved, fingerprints were an adaptation to hold on to things, just as tires have tread patterns that hold on to the road.
Interestingly, fingerprints are formed in the seventh month of fetal development. The pattern of fingerprint formation is determined by the genetic code as well as some environmental factors. In addition to the genetic code determining how the position of the fetus affects the skin pattern of the developing fetus, the development of each fingerprint ridge in utero, the composition and density of the surrounding amniotic fluid, and several other fetal developmental factors. All these events and factors are so random that two individuals, even twins, cannot have the same fingerprints.
More interestingly, fingerprints in the womb remain the same throughout life. There is no doubt that fingerprints are the only identifier for humans.
How fingerprint scanners work
Any fingerprint identification, regardless of its underlying electronics, scans a digital image of the fingerprint. The sample image is stored in memory and is used for comparison with future scans.
Comparative analysis of the entire fingerprint image often requires too many processors. This is why most scanning systems look for unique patterns in the fingerprint image. These unique features of a fingerprint are called details. Scanners look for points where ridges end or split into two ridges. These unique features are referred to as typical. The scanning software records the absolute positions of the detail points in the scanned image and plots the relative positions between them. This results in unique shapes and sizes between the various details.
Just like fingerprints, the final shape and size is always unique. By identifying a sufficient number of detail points, their absolute positions in the scan and their relative patterns, the scanner can uniquely identify a specific fingerprint. All of this involves complex image processing algorithms.
Many fingerprint scanners have additional sensors, such as pulse sensors or thermal sensors, to determine if the scanned image is from a living finger. Fingerprint recognition relies on a digital image of the scanned fingerprint. Sometimes fingerprints can be faked using fingerprint images, finger models, or clones from residual fingerprints. The use of additional sensors can help detect forgery accidents.
Types of fingerprint scanners
Based on electronics, there are four types of fingerprint scanners -
In embedded applications, optical and capacitive scanners are the most common. Most mobile devices and wearable devices have capacitive or in-display scanners.
Optical scanners were the first models of fingerprint scanners. As the name implies, these scanners use a CCD or CMOS image sensor to capture an optical image of the fingerprint. These are similar to camera sensors, although they are designed to take a high contrast image compared to any ordinary camera. The sensor consists of a set of led, CCD/CMOS sensors that capture the area of the illuminated finger and the reflected light waves. The sensor has a high density of diodes built in to obtain a detailed image of the fingerprint. The image captured is a two-dimensional image of the scanned fingerprint. The latest models are as small as 1 mm in size and can even scan wet fingers. As the cost gradually decreases, photoelectric capacitive hybrid scanners are able to detect the trend of active fingers.
Optical scanners, despite all the current advances, are still easily fooled. Fingerprints can be faked with high-resolution images of fingerprints, prosthetics, or artificial fingers.
Capacitive scanners use a completely different technology to read fingerprints. It uses an array of hundreds of small capacitors to detect the capacitor plates between the ridges of the finger and the valley. As long as there are ridges, the distance between it and the capacitor plate is small, resulting in a slightly smaller electrical capacity. Wherever there is a valley, the distance between it and the capacitor plate is greater than the air gap. This results in a much larger capacitance. The capacitance of each capacitor in the array is passed to an operational amplifier and recorded with the help of an analog-to-digital converter. This produces a digital scan of the fingerprint based on capacitive touch sensing.
Capacitive scanners are not easily fooled and can even detect a live finger. The only way to fake fingerprints with capacitive scanners is to hack into the hardware or software of the controller. Otherwise, these scanners cannot be fooled by the principle operation of printed images or prosthetics. Printing an image creates a corresponding capacitive effect, and the prosthesis cannot accurately simulate the touch capacitance of a live finger.
Ultrasonic scanners are the latest and most advanced fingerprint scanners capable of producing three-dimensional scans of fingerprints. Currently, this technology is only used in some high-end smartphones. In an ultrasonic scanner, there is a set of ultrasonic transmitters and receivers. The transmitters emit ultrasonic pulses that are reflected in the ridges, valleys and pores of the fingerprint. A set of receivers sense the reflected pulses. The receivers are actually sensors that measure the mechanical stress due to the intensity of the reflected ultrasonic pulses at different points. This results in a three-dimensional map of the fingerprint scan, which must be compared in detail to the two-dimensional scan of any capacitance scanner.
The ultrasonic scanner takes some time to effectively capture the 3D map of the fingerprint. Ultrasonic scanners are easy to implement. They are commonly used in smartphones as display scanners. Forging ultrasonic scanners like capacitive scanners is almost impossible. Scanning the 3-D features of a fingerprint makes the technology more robust. Like capacitive scanners, ultrasonic scanners can only be forged by hacking hardware or software. According to the operating principle, ultrasonic scanners are almost impeccable.
Many smartphones are now equipped with in-display fingerprint scanners. These are ultrasonic or optical capacitive scanners. Smartphones and other wearable devices with OLED screens prefer optical-capacitive scanners. In contrast, ultrasonic scanners are widely used in mid-range smartphones and products because they are easy to implement and cost effective.
Fingerprint scanners for Arduino, Raspberry Pi and other embedded prototyping platforms
Optical and capacitive scanners are quite common for embedded applications. A good example of an optical scanner is the r305 model. It has become quite popular among electronics hobbyists over the years. r303 is a popular capacitive scanner. These scanners typically communicate data to a microcontroller or microcomputer via a UART interface. It is easy to interface and operate as they come with instructions to record, scan and compare fingerprints. All these instructions can be easily communicated with the scanner through UART protocol.
How to use a fingerprint scanner in your Android device?
Here you will be introduced to two kinds
The first one: integrated in the Android motherboard, biometric Android smart terminal. This kind of smart terminal is based on the Android system solution, which embeds the fingerprint instrument into the device and can complete the functions of calling, positioning, taking photos and transmitting data
The second type:Fingerprint reader + Android device
The Android device is used as a carrier to download the software package needed for the fingerprint scanner, and connect to the Android device via Bluetooth or USB to achieve the registration and identification functions.
Both methods of use can be used to meet the requirements of our Android project.
What are the advantages of using an Android device as a fingerprint scanning solution?
Easy to carry
Easy to integrate
Long standby time
What are the common Android biometric solutions
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